Android Programming – Android Fragment Questions and Answers

Q-1 What is fragment and how we can create it in android application?


  • A Fragment represents a behavior or a portion of user interface in an Activity.
  • You can combine multiple fragments in a single activity to build a multi-pane UI and reuse a fragment in multiple activities.
  • You can think of a fragment as a modular section of an activity, which has its own lifecycle, receives its own input events, and which you can add or remove while the activity is running.
  • A fragment must always be embedded in an activity and the fragment’s lifecycle is directly affected by the host activity’s lifecycle.
  • However, while an activity is running (it is in the resumed lifecycle state), you can manipulate each fragment independently, such as add or remove them.
  • When you perform such a fragment transaction, you can also add it to a back stack that’s managed by the activity— each back stack entry in the activity is a record of the fragment transaction that occurred.
  • The back stack allows the user to reverse a fragment transaction (navigate backwards), by pressing the Back button.


Adding a fragment to an activity

  • Usually, a fragment contributes a portion of UI to the host activity, which is embedded as a part of the activity’s overall view hierarchy.
  • There are two ways you can add a fragment to the activity layout:


Declare the fragment inside the activity’s layout file

  • In this case, you can specify layout properties for the fragment as if it were a view. For example, here’s the layout file for an activity with two fragments:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>

<LinearLayout xmlns:android=""




<fragment android:name=""




android:layout_height="match_parent" />

<fragment android:name=""




android:layout_height="match_parent" />




  • The android:name attribute in the specifies the Fragment class to instantiate in the layout.
  • When the system creates this activity layout, it instantiates each fragment specified in the layout and calls the onCreateView() method for each one, to retrieve each fragment’s layout.
  • The system inserts the View returned by the fragment directly in place of the element.


Programmatically add the fragment to an existing ViewGroup

  • At any time while your activity is running, you can add fragments to your activity layout. You simply need to specify a ViewGroup in which to place the fragment.
  • To make fragment transactions in your activity (such as add, remove, or replace a fragment), you must use APIs from FragmentTransaction.
  • You can get an instance of FragmentTransaction from your Activity like this:


FragmentManager fragmentManager = getFragmentManager();

FragmentTransaction fragmentTransaction = fragmentManager.beginTransaction();


  • You can then add a fragment using the add() method, specifying the fragment to add and the view in which to insert it. For example:

ExampleFragment fragment = new ExampleFragment();

fragmentTransaction.add(, fragment);



  • The first argument passed to add() is the ViewGroup in which the fragment should be placed, specified by resource ID, and the second parameter is the fragment to add.
  • Once you’ve made your changes with FragmentTransaction, you must call commit() for the changes to take effect.