Basics of Windows Operating System


Basics of Windows Operating System:here in this topic we will not go much deep into the operating system but we will understand some common functionality and use of functional key and some windows commands and overview of windows operating system .

Basic use of Keys: F1-F12

  • F1 Help. Click F1 Key can load the help file of the program.Enter CMOS Setup
  • F2 Rename. Select a folder or file, click F2 to rename it.Alt + Ctrl + F2 opens the Documents Library while on MS Office suite
  • F3 Search. On desktop, click F3 to load the search form. Shift + F3 toggles between capitalizing each word, lower case and upper case for selected text on MS Word. Windows Key + F3 opens the Advanced find window in Microsoft Outlook.
  • F4 In Internet Explorer, click F4 will list the URL Address field.Alt + F4 closes the current program. When no program is running it launches the Shutdown dialog box. Ctrl + F4 closes the open window within the current active window in Microsoft Windows.
  • F5 Refresh. Use it to refresh the web page in Internet Explorer.Starts a slideshow in PowerPoint.Open the find, replace, and go to window in Microsoft Word.
  • F6 In Internet Explorer, click F6 will jump to address bar.On Windows desktop pressing F6 tabs from desktop files to the taskbar and the system.Ctrl + Shift + F6 opens to another open Microsoft Word document.
  • F7 It can be used to insert ^C in command prompt. Commonly used to spell check and grammar check a document in Microsoft programs such as Microsoft Word, Outlook, etc.
  • F8 When windows startup, it can load the startup menu.
  • F9 In Windows Media Player, it can increase the volumn. Send and receive e-mail in Microsoft Outlook. Refresh document in Microsoft Word.
  • F10 In Windows Media Player, it can decrease the volumn.In Microsoft Windows activates the menu bar of an open application.Shift + F10 is the same as right-clicking on a highlighted icon, file, or Internet link
  • F11 In Internet Explorer, click F11 will switch to Full Screen mode.
  • F12 In MS-Word, it will show out the “Save-As” dialog.Ctrl + F12 opens a document In Word.Shift + F12 saves the Microsoft Word document (like Ctrl + S).Ctrl + Shift + F12 prints a document in Microsoft Word.

Some of the important and easy Windows Command to remember


Command will display MS-DOS version


To view All the files and directories on your drive are stored in the root directory. 

The cd command stands for “change directory.”  change from the root directory to the WINDOWS directory

4.dir /p 

To view the contents of a directory one screen at a time.

5.dir /w 

To view the contents of a directory in wide format \

To change to the root directory back. or mkdir India

To create dir named india

8.rd India

remove an empty directory India 

9.copy source destination

copy c:\windows\notepad.exe c:\india

Renaming Files

ren notpad.exe  india.txt


Deleting a File


Some more Commands in Windows 7

ATTRIB Displays or changes file attributes.

BREAK Sets or clears extended CTRL+C checking.

BCDBOOT* Used to copy critical files to the system partition and to create a new system BCD store.

BCDEDIT Sets properties in boot database to control boot loading.

CACLS Displays or modifies access control lists (ACLs) of files.

CALL Calls one batch program from another.

CD Displays the name of or changes the current directory.

CHCP Displays or sets the active code page number.

CHDIR Displays the name of or changes the current directory.

CHKDSK Checks a disk and displays a status report.

CHKNTFS Displays or modifies the checking of disk at boot time.

CHOICE Batch file command that allows users to select from a set of options.

CIPHER Displays or alters the encryption of directories [files] on NTFS partitions.

CLIP Redirects output of another command to the Windows clipboard.

CLS Clears the screen.
CMD Starts a new instance of the Windows command interpreter.

CMDKEY Creates, lists and deletes stored user names and passwords or credentials.

COLOR Sets the default console foreground and background colors.

COMP Compares the contents of two files or sets of files byte-by-byte

COMPACT Displays or alters the compression of files on NTFS partitions.

CONVERT Converts FAT volumes to NTFS. You cannot convert the current drive.

COPY Copies one or more files to another location.

DATE Displays or sets the date.

DEFRAG Disk defragmenter accessory.

DEL Deletes one or more files.

DIR Displays a list of files and subdirectories in a directory.

DISKCOMP Compares the contents of two floppy disks.

DISKCOPY Copies the contents of one floppy disk to another.

DISKPART Displays or configures Disk Partition properties. A separte command interpreter with a sub-set of commands.

DOSKEY Edits command lines, recalls Windows commands, and creates macros.

DRIVERQUERY Displays current device driver status and properties.

ECHO Displays messages, or turns command echoing on or off.

ENDLOCAL Ends localization of environment changes in a batch file.

ERASE Deletes one or more files.

EXIT Quits and closes the command shell.

EXPAND Expands one or more compressed files.

FC Compares two files or sets of files, and displays the differences between them.

FIND Searches for a text string in a file or files.

FINDSTR Searches for strings in files.

FOR Runs a specified command for each item in a set.

FORFILES Selects files in a folder for batch processing.

FORMAT Formats a disk for use with Windows.

FSUTIL Displays or configures the file system properties.

FTYPE Displays or modifies file types used in file extension associations.

GOTO Directs the Windows command interpreter to a labeled line in a batch program.

GPRESULT Displays Group Policy information for machine or user.

GRAFTABL Enables Windows to display an extended character set in graphics mode.

HELP Provides Help information for Windows commands.

ICACLS Display, modify, backup, or restore ACLs for files and directories ( more here) .

IF Performs conditional processing in batch programs.

IPCONFIG Displays all current TCP/IP network configuration values

LABEL Creates, changes, or deletes the volume label of a disk.

MD Creates a directory.

MKDIR Creates a directory.

MKLINK Creates Symbolic Links and Hard Links

MODE Configures a system device.

MORE Displays output one screen at a time.

MOVE Moves one or more files from one directory to another directory.

OPENFILES Queries, displays, or disconnects open files or files opened by network users.

PATH Displays or sets a search path for executable files.

PAUSE Suspends processing of a batch file and displays a message.

POPD Restores the previous value of the current directory saved by PUSHD.

PRINT Prints a text file.

PROMPT Changes the Windows command prompt.

PUSHD Saves the current directory then changes it.

RD Removes a directory.

RECOVER Recovers readable information from a bad or defective disk.

REM Designates comments (remarks) in batch files

REN Renames a file or files.

RENAME Renames a file or files.

REPLACE Replaces files.

RMDIR Removes a directory.

ROBOCOPY Advanced utility to copy files and directory trees

SET Displays, sets, or removes environment variables for current session.

SETLOCAL Begins localization of environment changes in a batch file.

SETX Sets environment variables.

SC Displays or configures services (background processes).

SCHTASKS Schedules commands and programs to run on a computer.

SHIFT Shifts the position of replaceable parameters in batch files.

SHUTDOWN Allows proper local or remote shutdown of machine.

SORT Sorts input.

START Starts a separate window to run a specified program or command.

SUBST Associates a path with a drive letter.

SYSTEMINFO Displays machine specific properties and configuration.

TAKEOWN Allows an administrator to take ownership of a file ( more here ).

TASKLIST Displays all currently running tasks including services.

TASKKILL Kill or stop a running process or application.

TIME Displays or sets the system time.

TIMEOUT Pauses the command processor for the specified number of seconds. More here .

TITLE Sets the window title for a CMD.EXE session.

TREE Graphically displays the directory structure of a drive or path.

TYPE Displays the contents of a text file.

VER Displays the Windows version.

VERIFY Tells Windows whether to verify that your files are written correctly to a disk.

VOL Displays a disk volume label and serial number.

VSSADMIN Volume Shadow Copy Service administration tool

WHERE Displays the location of files that match a search pattern.

XCOPY Copies files and directory trees.

WMIC Displays WMI information inside interactive command shell

Practice Now – Online Test For Windows Operating System