Hardware Trouble Shooting

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Hardware Trouble Shooting:In our day to life we are come across lots of common computer hardware related issues,
here in this topic we will discuss some of them for Quick fix.
In order to solve a problem, you must figure out which part of the system is malfunctioning. You will
need to check each component of the computer, unless it is obvious where the problem is coming from.
before moving to the troubleshooting tips. we need to understand the basic Boot Sequence when computer first Start

here is the steps mentioned below in Sequence
Step-1:Power On
Step-2:CPU Wakes up
Step-3:CPU gets POST order from BIOS
Step-4:In POST Check BIOS Check internal Devices
(HD,RAM, Ports, Mouse, Keyboard, etc.)If ok, then find and load OS
Step-5:OS loads, takes over and loads device drivers, etc. and then the desktop

Here is list of Common Problems

  • Cables
  • Keyboards and mice is not working.
  • The printer is not working.
  • Disk Drives
  • Overheating
  • Power problems
  • Electromagnetic Interference (EMI)
  • Electrostatic Discharge (ESD)
  • Windows errors
  • Device drivers
  • Spyware/Viruses
  • New hardware or software is working incorrectly

 
Fix: The printer is not working.

  1. Check if the printer is turned on. If not, turn it on and try again.
  2. Check if the printer has paper. If not, put paper in the paper tray and try printing again.
  3. Check if the printer has a paper jam. If so, remove the paper, close the printer, and try printing again.
  4. Ensure that all printer cables are properly connected.
  5. Turn off the printer and turn on again.
  6. Check to see if a new printer driver is needed. Do this by going to the manufacturer’s website to search for your printer model and checking for any updated driver. Seek assistance from your system administrator before installing any drivers.

 
Fix: The computer is frozen. A program is not responding.

  1. Push the Ctrl, Alt, and Delete keys at the same time. Then, start the Task Manager, highlight the program’s name, and hit the End Task button.
  2. Perform a hard reboot by simply pressing the on/off button to turn off the computer manually. This action should only be done as a last resort if you have an unresponsive program or critical error. This process could cause data loss or corruption.  Once the computer is responding again, run a virus check.

 
Fix: The keyboard is not working.

  1. Make sure the keyboard is connected to the computer. If not, connect it to the computer.
  2. If you are using a wireless keyboard, try changing the batteries.
  3. If one of the keys on your keyboard gets stuck, turn the computer off and clean with a damp cloth.
  4. Use the mouse to restart the computer.

 
Fix: New hardware or software is working incorrectly.

  1. Verify your computer meets the requirements of the program or utility.
  2. Uninstall and install the program.
  3. There could be a conflict with another installed program and you should contact your system administrator.

 
Fix: The mouse is not working correctly.

  1. Check if the mouse is securely plugged into the computer. If not, plug it in completely.
  2. Check to see if the cord has been damaged. If so, the mouse may need replacing.
  3. If you are using a cordless mouse, try pushing the connection button on the underside of the mouse to reestablish a connection.
  4. Clean the mouse, especially on the bottom.

 
Issue: The computer is slow.

  1. Restart your computer.
  2. Verify that there is at least 200-500 MB of free hard drive space. To do so, select Start and click on My Computer or Computer. Then highlight the local C drive by clicking on it once. Select the Properties button at the top left-hand corner of the window; this will display a window showing how much free and used space you have. If you need to recapture space:
  3.  Empty your recycle bin by right-clicking on the Recycle Bin icon (usually on the desktop),
    then selecting Empty Recycle Bin.
  4. Check your mail files. Remove any large attachments and delete unused mail.
  5.  Images and videos take up a lot of space, so consider moving those to an external drive.
  6.  Remove temporary files from the Internet. Once the Disk Cleanup finishes running, click on Clean up System Files; this will delete any unnecessary system-related files from your local disk.

 
How to know that there is some hardware problem in the PC?
the single beep that most PCs  produce between the end of the power-on self test (POST) and the beginning of the startup process. Errors that occur, or are displayed, before this beep indicate that a hardware
problem of some type exists. If the system produces an error message (such as “The system has detected
unstable RAM at location x”) or a beep code before the single beep occurs, the system has found a problem with the hardware. In this case, a bad RAM memory device is indicated

If the error occurs after the CMOS screen displays and before the bootup
tone, you must clean boot the system and single-step through the remainder
of the bootup sequence.
You can still group errors that occur before the beep into two distinct categories:
➤ Configuration errors
➤ Hardware failures
 
configuration problems, or setup problems:

These problems result from mismatches between the system’s programmed configuration held in CMOS memory and the actual equipment installed in the system.

Quick fix: When you are installing new hardware or software options, be aware of the
possibility of configuration errors occurring. If you encounter configuration
(or setup) errors, refer to the installation instructions found in the new component’s installation/user documentation.

Theres are some  Common Configuration Error Codes

1.CMOS system option not set:failure of cmos batteries or CMOS checksum test

2.CMOS display mismatch:failure of display type varification

3.CMOS memory size mismatch:system configuration and set up failure

4.Press F1 to continue: invalid configuaration information

5.CMOS time and date not set:failure of CMOS battery

 

Errors that occur between the beep and the presentation of the operating system’s user interface (command prompt or GUI) generally have three possible sources. These sources are summarized in the following list that includes the typical error messages associated with each
source.

Hardware failure (physical problem with the boot drive)

  • General Failure Error Reading Drive x
  • Corrupted or missing boot files
  1. Bad or Missing Command Interpreter
  2. Nonsystem Disk or Disk Error
  3. Bad File Allocation Table
  • Corrupted or missing operating system files

few hardware diagnostic tools can be very helpful in isolating defective hardware components. These tools include

  1. Software diagnostic disk
  2. Multimeter
  3. Cable tester
  4. POST card

 
Troubleshooting Floppy Disk Drives

Typical symptoms associated with floppy disk drive (FDD) failures during
bootup include the following:

  1. FDD error messages are encountered during the bootup process.
  2. An IBM-compatible 6xx (such as, 601) error code is displayed.
  3. An FDD Controller error message displays, indicating a failure to verify
    the FDD setup by the system configuration file.
  4. The FDD activity light stays on constantly, indicating that the FDD signal cable is reversed.
    Additional FDD error messages commonly encountered during normal system operation include the following:
  5. Disk Drive Read/Write/Seek error messages appear.
  6. The No Boot Record Found message appears, indicating that the system
    files in the disk’s boot sector are missing or have become corrupt.
  7. The system stops working while reading a disk, indicating that the contents of the disk have become contaminated.
  8. The drive displays the same directory listing for every disk inserted in
    the drive, indicating that the FDD’s disk-change detector or signal line
    is not functional.

 
Quick fix:

  1. If there is a problem booting the system, insert the bootable floppy disk in the new A drive and turn on the system. If the system does not boot up to the floppy, examine the advanced CMOS setup to check the system’s boot order. It might be set so that the FDD is never examined during the bootup sequence. If the system still does not boot from the floppy, check the disk drive cables for proper connection at both ends. In many systems, the pin-1 designation is difficult to see. Reversing the signal cable causes the FDD activity light to stay on continuously. The reversed signal cable also erases the Master Boot Record (MBR) from the disk, making it nonbootable. Because this is a real possibility, you should always use an expendable backup copy of the boot disk for troubleshooting FDD problems.
  2. If the system has a second floppy disk drive, turn it off and exchange the drive’s connection to the signal cable so that it becomes the A drive. Try to reboot the system using this other floppy disk drive as the A drive.
  3. Hardware troubleshooting for floppy disk drives primarily involves exchanging the FDD unit for another one that is working. If necessary, exchange the signal cable with a known-good one. The only other option with most PCcompatible systems is to exchange the system board with a known-good on

 
Troubleshooting Hard Disk Drives

Typical symptoms associated with hard disk drive failures include the
following:

  1. The front panel indicator lights are visible, and the display is present on
    the monitor screen, but there is no disk drive action and no bootup.
  2. The computer boots up to a system disk in the A drive, but not to the
    hard drive, indicating that the system files on the hard disk drive (HDD)
    are missing or have become corrupt.
  3. The computer does not boot up when turned on.
  4. An IBM-compatible 17xx error code is produced on the display.
  5. No motor sounds are produced by the HDD while the computer is running. (In desktop units, the HDD should generally always run when power is applied to the system—however, this does not apply to all desktops or portables when advanced power-saving features are used.)
  6. A HDD Controller Failure message appears, indicating a failure to verify hard disk setup by system configuration file error.
  7. A C: or D: Fixed Disk Drive error message appears, indicating a hard disk CMOS setup failure.
  8. An Invalid Media Type message appears, indicating the controller cannot find a recognizable track/sector pattern on the drive.
  9. A No Boot Record Found, a Nonsystem Disk or Disk Error, or an Invalid System Disk message appears, indicating that the system boot files are not located in the root directory of the drive.
  10. The video display is active, but the HDD’s activity light remains on and no bootup occurs, indicating that the HDD’s CMOS configuration information is incorrect.
  11. An Out of Disk Space message appears, indicating that the amount of space on the disk is insufficient to carry out the desired operation.
  12. A Missing Operating System or a Hard Drive Boot Failure message appears, indicating that the disk’s MBR is missing or has become corrupt.
  13. A Current Drive No Longer Valid message appears, indicating that the HDD’s CMOS configuration information is incorrect or has become corrupt.

 
Quick Fix:

The first task is to determine how extensive the HDD problem is. Place a clean boot disk or an emergency start disk in the A drive and try to boot the system. Then execute a DIR command to access the C drive. If the system can
see the contents of the drive, the boot files have been lost or corrupted, but the architecture of the disk is intact.

Modify the DIR command with an /AH or /AS switch (that is, DIR C: /AH or DIR C: /AS) to look in the root directory for the system files and the COMMAND.COM file. It is common to receive a Disk Boot Failure message onscreen if this type of situation occurs.

if the clean boot disk has a copy of the FDISK program on it, attempt to restore the drive’s MBR (including
its partition information) by typing the following:
A>FDISK /MBR

Providing that the hard disk can be accessed with the DIR command, type and enter the following command at the DOS prompt (with the clean boot disk still in the A drive):
SYS C:

This command copies the IO.SYS, MSDOS.SYS, and COMMAND.COM system files from the boot disk to the hard disk drive. Turn off the system, remove the boot disk from the A drive, and try to reboot the system from the hard drive.