# Introduction to Data Communications And Networking

Computer networks are designed to transfer data from one point to another. During transit data is in the form of electromagnetic signals. Hence it is important to study data and signals before we move to further concepts in data communication.

DATA & SIGNALS

To be transmitted, data must be transformed to electromagnetic signals.

2.2.1. Data can be Analog or Digital.
1. Analog data refers to information that is continuous; ex.
sounds made by a human voice
2. Digital data refers to information that has discrete states.
Digital data take on discrete values.
3. For example, data are stored in computer memory in the
form of Os and 1s

2.2.2. Signals can be of two types:
1. Analog Signal: They have infinite values in a range.
2. Digital Signal: They have limited number of defined
values

2.2.3. Periodic & Non Periodic Signals

Signals which repeat itself after a fixed time period are called
Periodic Signals.
Signals which do not repeat itself after a fixed time period
are called Non-Periodic Signals.
In data communications, we commonly use periodic
analog signals and non-periodic digital signals.

2.3 ANALOG SIGNAL

• An analog signal has infinitely many levels of intensity over a
period of time.
• As the wave moves from value A to value B, it passes
through and includes an infinite number of values along its
path as it can be seen in the figure below.
• A simple analog signal is a sine wave that cannot be further
decomposed into simpler signals.

A sine wave is characterized by three parameters:

1. Peak Amplitude

2. Frequency

3. Phase

2.3.1 Characteristics of an Analog Signal
2.3.1.1 Peak Amplitude

• The amplitude of a signal is the absolute value of its
intensity at time t
• The peak amplitude of a signal is the absolute value of
the highest intensity
• The amplitude of a signal is proportional to the energy
carried by the signal

2.3.1.2. Frequency

• Frequency refers to the number of cycles completed by the
wave in one second.
• Period refers to the time taken by the wave to complete one
second.

2.3.1.3. Phase
Phase describes the position of the waveform with respect to time
(specifically relative to time O).

•  Phase indicates the forward or backward shift of the
waveform from the axis
• It is measured in degrees or radian
• The figure above shows the sine waves with same amplitude
and frequency but different phases

Digital Signal

Information can also be explained in the form of a digital signal.

A digital signal can be explained with the help of following points

Definition:- A digital is a signal that has discrete values. The signal will have value that is not continuous.

BIT LENGTH or Bit Interval (Tb)

• It is the time required to send one bit.
• It is measured in seconds.

BIT RATE

• It is the number of bits transmitted in one second.
• It is expressed as bits per second (bps).
• Relation between bit rate and bit interval can be as follows

Bit rate = 1 / Bit interval

Baud Rate

It is the rate of Signal Speed, i.e the rate at which the signal changes.

A digital signal with two levels  0 & 1  will have the same baud rate and bit rate & bit rate.

TYPES OF CHANNELS:

• Each composite signal has a lowest possible(minimum) frequency and a highest possible (maximum) frequency.
• From the point of view of transmission, there are two types of channels:

1 Low pass Channel

• This channel has the lowest frequency as 0 and highest
frequency as some non-zero frequency f1.
• This channel can pass all the frequencies in the range 0 to f1.

2 Band pass channel

• This channel has the lowest frequency as some non-zero
frequency  f1 and highest frequency as some non-zero
frequency  f2.
• This channel can pass all the frequencies in the range f1 to f2.

Transmission of Digital signal

Digital signal can be transmitted in the following two ways:

1 Baseband Transmission

• The signal is transmitted without making any change to it (ie. Without modulation)
In baseband transmission, the bandwidth of the signal to
be transmitted has to be less than the bandwidth of the
channel.
• Ex. Consider a Baseband channel with lower frequency 0Hz and higher frequency 100Hz, hence its bandwidth is
100 (Bandwidth is calculated by getting the difference between the highest and lowest frequency).
• We can easily transmit a signal with frequency below 100Hz, such a channel whose bandwidth is more than
the bandwidth of the signal is called Wideband channel Logically a signal with frequency say 120Hz will be
blocked resulting in loss of information, such a channel whose bandwidth is less than the bandwidth of the signal
is called Narrowband channel