Network Models Study Notes


  • The International Standards Organization created a model called the Open Systems Interconnection, which allows diverse systems to communicate.
  • The seven-layer OSI model provides guidelines for the development of universally compatible networking protocols.
  • The physical, data link, and network layers are the network support layers.
  • The session, presentation, and application layers are the user support layers.
  • The transport layer links the network support layers and the user support layers.
  • The physical layer coordinates the functions required to transmit a bit stream over a physical medium.
  • The data link layer is responsible for delivering data units from one station to the next without errors.
  • The network layer is responsible for the source-to-destination delivery of a packet across multiple network links.
  • The transport layer is responsible for the process-to-process delivery of the entire message.
  • The session layer establishes, maintains, and synchronizes the interactions between communicating devices.
  • The presentation layer ensures interoperability between communicating devices through transformation of data into a mutually agreed upon format.
  • The application layer enables the users to access the network.
  • TCP/IP is a five-layer hierarchical protocol suite developed before the OSI model.
  • The TCP/IP application layer is equivalent to the combined session, presentation, and application layers of the OSI model.
  • Four levels of addresses are used in an internet following the TCP/IP protocols: physical (link) addresses, logical (IP) addresses, port addresses, and specific addresses.
  • The physical address, also known as the link address, is the address of a node as defined by its LAN or WAN.
  • The IP address uniquely defines a host on the Internet.
  • The port address identifies a process on a host.
  • A specific address is a user-friendly address.


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