Before we study these in greater detail about Network Security, there are certain fundamental terminology and concepts that must be understood.
In Cyberspace we have

  1. Cyberethics exploring appropriate and ethical behaviours related to online environments and digital media. It includes plagiarism, bullying, and hacking to name a few.
  2. Cybersafety defining how one operates on-line. It includes rules guiding how to keep personal information safe and limited
  3. Cybersecurity involving tasks undertaken on the computer to keep it secure from people who wish to harm it or use data stored on it unlawfully. This includes installing virus software and firewalls.


Copyright and license

Copyright is about protecting original expression. A software copyright protects all source code, written text materials, graphic images/ designs, drawings, any linked sound, video files or films.

A copyright owner has below permissions:

  1. Fix or store the information in a tangible form.
  2. Reproduce the copyrighted material.
  3. Sell, rent, lease, or otherwise distribute copies of the copyright work to the public.
  4. Publicly perform and display the copyrighted material.
  5. Prepare derivative works based on the copyrighted material.

License is the permission granted by the holder of a copyright to another to use an
original work


Software licensing

A software license is a legal agreement about an application. It is between the software producer and the end-user and is an important part of the legally binding contract between them (or rights owner) and the end-user.


Open Source, Freeware and Shareware

Open-source Software (OSS) is computer software with its source code made available. It is
very often developed in a public, collaborative manner. A license for open sources software
allows the end user to study, change and distribute the software for any purpose.



Some copyrighted software is made available for use, free of charge for an unlimited time.
These are called freeware


Shareware are copyrighted software that can be shared for a limited on a trial basis with
the understanding that if the user decides to use it, he will pay for it.



Cookies allow a visited website to store its own information about a user on the user’s computer



A firewall is a program or hardware device that filters the information coming through an internet
connection to a network or computer system. If incoming information does not pass the rules stored in the firewall, it is not allowed through.



which is the process of trying to tempt the target to provide personal information which can be used to perform illegal actions. One of the more common ways to accomplish identity theft.



which involves harassing or threatening behaviour that an individual engages in repeatedly. It could mean following a person, appearing at a person’s home or place of business, making harassing phone calls, leaving written messages or objects, or vandalizing a person’s property. Such behaviour should be treated seriously.


Most Attacks Can Be Categorized as one of SIX Broad Classes

Malware, software that has a mischievous purpose such as virus attacks, worms, adware, Trojan horses, and spyware. This is the most prevalent danger to a system. Malware is discussed in detail later in the lesson.

Security Breaches that attempt to gain unauthorized access to a system including cracking of passwords, changing privileges, breaking into a server….. in other words, hacking a computer or a computer network.

Denial of Service (DDOS) Attacks that are designed to prevent legitimate access to a system. Web attacks that attempts to breach a website. Two of the most common such attacks are SQL injection and cross-site scripting.

Session Hijacking, where an attacker attempts to take over a session.

DNS Poisoning, which seeks to compromise a DNS server so that users can be redirected
to unsafe websites.


Cyber Crimes

Cyber crime may be defined as any illegal act that involves a computer, computer system or computer network. It is any illegal act for which knowledge of computer technology is essential to execute, investigate, or implement.


The DOS and DONTS of network security
❖ Pay close attention to website URLs. Pay attention to the URLs of websites you visit.
❖ Keep operating system, browser, anti-virus and other critical software up to date.
Security updates and patches are available for free from major companies.
❖ Turn off the option to automatically download attachments from your emails
❖ Save and scan any attachments before opening them. If you have to open an attachment
before you can verify the source, take the following steps:
✧ Be sure your anti-virus software is up to date.
✧ Save the file to your computer or a disk.
✧ Run an anti-virus scan using your computer’s software.

You may be interested in:
Cyber Security MCQs
Cyber Security Online Tests
Cryptography in the Networking MCQs
Network Security MCQs