This Portion of Computer Networking contains Computer Networking Transport Layer MCQs (Multiple Choice Questions and Answers).

This Section covers below lists of topics.

1 INTRODUCTION
• Network-Layer Services
• Packet Switching
• Network-Layer Performance
• Network-Layer Congestion
• Structure of A Router

2 NETWORK-LAYER PROTOCOLS
• IPv4 Datagram Format
• IPv4 Addresses
• Forwarding of IP Packets
• ICMPv4

3 UNICAST ROUTING
• General Idea
• Routing Algorithms
• Unicast Routing Protocols

4 MULTICAST ROUTING
• Introduction
• Multicasting Basics
• Intradomain Routing Protocols
• Interdomain Routing Protocols

5 NEXT GENERATION IP
• Packet Format
• IPv6 Addressing
• Transition from IPv4 to IPv6
• ICMPv6

PRACTICE IT NOW TO SHARPEN YOUR CONCEPT AND KNOWLEDGE

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1. Packetizing at the network layer involves

  • Encapsulating the payload at the source
  • Adds a header that contains the source and destination information
  • Decapsulating the payload at the destination
  • All of the choices are correct

2. Routers in the path are not allowed to ___________________________.

  • fragment the packet they receive
  • decapsulate the packet
  • change source or destination address
  • All of the choices are correct

3. The network layer in the Internet provides _________________.

  • comprehensive error and flow control.
  • limited error control, but no flow control.
  • comprehensive error control but limited flow control.
  • All of the choices are correct

4. In a virtual-circuit approach, the forwarding decision is based on the value of the _____________ field in the packet header.

  • source address
  • destination address
  • label
  • None of the choices are correct

5. In a datagram approach, the forwarding decision is based on the value of the _____________ field in the packet header.

  • source address
  • destination address
  • label
  • None of the choices are correct

6. The performance of a network can be measured in terms of ________.

  • delay
  • throughput
  • packet loss
  • all of the choices are correct

7. Transmission delay (time) is the ratio of ______________________.

  • transmission rate to packet length
  • transmission rate to distance
  • packet length to transmission rate
  • processing time to transmission rate

8. Propagation delay (time) is the ratio of ______________________.

  • transmission rate to propagation speed
  • propagation speed to distance
  • packet length to propagation speed
  • distance to propagation speed

9. When the load in the network reaches the network capacity, the packet delay ___________ and the network throughput reaches ______________.

  • increases sharply; its minimum
  • increases sharply; its maximum
  • decreases sharply; its minimum
  • decreases sharply; its maximum

10. In open-loop congestion control, policies are applied ____________________.

  • to prevent congestion before it happens
  • to alleviate congestion after it happens
  • to either prevent congestion before it happens or to alleviate congestion after it happens
  • None of the choices are correct

11. The __________________ technique is one of the open-loop congestion policy

  • backpressure
  • choke packet
  • implicit signaling
  • None of the choices are correct

12. The __________________ technique is one of the close-loop congestion policy

  • acknowledgment policy
  • choke packet
  • discarding policy
  • None of the choices are correct

13. IP is a _________ protocol.

  • connection-oriented unreliable
  • connection-oriented reliable
  • connectionless unreliable
  • connectionless reliable

14. An HLEN value of decimal 10 means _______.

  • there are 10 bytes of options
  • there are 10 bytes in the header
  • there are 40 bytes of options
  • there are 40 bytes in the header

15. If the fragment offset has a value of 100, it means that _______.

  • the datagram has not been fragmented
  • the datagram is 100 bytes in size
  • the first byte of the datagram is byte 800
  • None of the choices are correct

16. What is needed to determine the number of the last byte of a fragment?

  • offset number
  • total length
  • both offset number and the total length
  • None of the choices are correct

17. The IP header size is _______ bytes long.

  • 20 to 60
  • 20
  • 60
  • None of the choices are correct

18. Packets in the IP layer are called _________.

  • segments
  • datagrams
  • frames
  • None of the choices are correct

19. The total length field defines the total length of the datagram _________.

  • including the header
  • excluding the header
  • excluding the option length
  • None of the choices are correct

20. When a datagram is encapsulated in a frame, the total size of the datagram must be less than the _______.

  • MUT
  • MAT
  • MTU
  • None of the choices are correct

21. An IPv4 address is normally represented in base ____ in dotted-decimal notation.

  • 16
  • 256
  • 10
  • None of the choices are correct

22. In classful addressing, the IPv4 address space is divided into _______ classes.

  • 3
  • 4
  • 5
  • None of the choices are correct

23. The number of addresses assigned to an organization in classless addressing _______.

  • can be any number
  • must be a multiple of 256
  • must be a power of 2
  • None of the choices are correct

24. The first address assigned to an organization in classless addressing _______.

  • must be evenly divisible by the number of addresses in the organization
  • must be divisible by 128
  • must belong to one of the A, B, or C classes
  • None of the choices are correct

25. In subnetting, the number of addresses in each subnet must _______.

  • be a power of 2
  • be a multiple of 128
  • be divisible by 128
  • None of the choices are correct

26. What is the default prefix length for class A in CIDR notation?

  • 9
  • 8
  • 16
  • None of the choices are correct

27. What is the default prefix length for class B in CIDR notation?

  • 9
  • 8
  • 16
  • None of the choices are correct

28. What is the default prefix length for class C in CIDR notation?

  • 24
  • 8
  • 16
  • None of the choices are correct

29. DHCP is a (an) ___________ layer protocol.

  • application
  • transport
  • network
  • data-link

30. In DHCP, the client uses ________ port and the server uses _________ port.

  • an ephemeral; a well-known
  • a well-known; a well-known
  • a well-known; an ephemeral
  • None of the choices are correct

31. DHCP uses the services of _______.

  • UDP
  • TCP
  • IP
  • None of the choices are correct

32. _________ allows a site to use a set of private addresses for internal communication and a set of global Internet addresses for communication with the rest of the world.

  • DHCP
  • NAT
  • IMCP
  • None of the choices are correct

33. The idea of address aggregation was designed to alleviate the increase in routing table entries when using ________ addressing.

  • classful
  • classless
  • classful or classless
  • None of the choices are correct

34. The use of hierarchy in routing tables can ________ the size of the routing tables.

  • reduce
  • increase
  • neither reduce nor increase
  • None of the choices are correct

35. ICMP is a (an) _________ layer protocol.

  • application-layer protocol that helps TCP/IP at the network layer
  • transport-layer protocol that helps TCP/IP at the network layer
  • network-layer protocol.
  • data-link layer protocol that helps TCP/IP at the network layer

36. Which of the following is true about ICMP messages?

  • An ICMP error message may be generated for an ICMP error message.
  • An ICMP error message may be generated for a fragmented datagram.
  • An ICMP error message may be generated for a multicast datagram.
  • None of the choices are correct

37. Routing inside an autonomous system is referred to as ________ routing.

  • interdomain
  • intradomain
  • out-of-domain
  • None of the choices are correct

38. Routing between autonomous systems is referred to as ______ routing.

  • interdomain routing
  • intradomain routing
  • out-of-domain
  • None of the choices are correct

39. In _______ routing, the least cost route between any two nodes is the route with the minimum distance.

  • path vector
  • distance vector
  • link state
  • None of the choices are correct

40. In ________, each node maintains a vector (table) of minimum distances to every node.

  • path vector
  • distance vector
  • link state
  • None of the choices are correct

41. In distance vector routing, each node periodically shares its routing table with _________ and whenever there is a change.

  • every other node
  • its immediate neighbors
  • one neighbor
  • None of the choices are correct

42. The Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is an intradomain routing based on _________ routing.

  • distance vector
  • link state
  • path vector
  • None of the choices are correct

43. The metric used by _______ is the hop count.

  • OSPF
  • RIP
  • BGP
  • None of the choices are correct

44. In RIP, the ________ timer controls the advertising of regular update messages.

  • garbage collection
  • expiration
  • periodic
  • None of the choices are correct

45. In RIP, the ________ timer is used to purge invalid routes from the table.

  • garbage collection
  • expiration
  • periodic
  • None of the choices are correct

46. In RIP, the ________ timer controls the validity of the route.

  • garbage collection
  • expiration
  • periodic
  • None of the choices are correct

47. RIP uses the services of _______.

  • TCP
  • UDP
  • IP
  • None of the choices are correct

48. The _________ routing uses the Dijkstra algorithm to build a routing table.

  • distance vector
  • link state
  • path vector
  • None of the choices are correct

49. The Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) protocol is an intradomain routing protocol based on _______ routing.

  • distance vector
  • link state
  • path vector
  • None of the choices are correct

50. The _______ protocol allows the administrator to assign a cost, called the metric, to each route.

  • OSPF
  • RIP
  • BGP
  • None of the choices are correct
  • point-to-point
  • transient
  • stub
  • None of the choices are correct
  • point-to-point
  • transient
  • stub
  • None of the choices are correct
  • point-to-point
  • transient
  • stub
  • None of the choices are correct
  • network link
  • router link
  • summary link to network
  • None of the choices are correct

55. ___________ is an interdomain routing protocol using path vector routing.

  • BGP
  • RIP
  • OSPF
  • None of the choices are correct

56. A one-to-all communication between one source and all hosts on a network is classified as a _______ communication.

  • unicast
  • multicast
  • broadcast
  • None of the choices are correct

57. A one-to-many communication between one source and a specific group of hosts is classified as a _______ communication.

  • unicast
  • multicast
  • broadcast
  • None of the choices are correct

58. A one-to-one communication between one source and one destination is classified as a _______ communication.

  • unicast
  • multicast
  • broadcast
  • None of the choices are correct

59. In ______, the router forwards the received packet through only one of its interfaces.

  • unicasting
  • multicasting
  • broadcasting
  • None of the choices are correct

60. In multicast routing, each involved router needs to construct a ________ path tree for each group.

  • average
  • longest
  • shortest
  • None of the choices are correct

61. In the _______ tree approach to multicasting, each router needs to create a separate tree for each source-group.

  • group-shared
  • source-based
  • destination-based
  • None of the choices are correct

62. The Multicast Open Shortest Path First (MOSPF) routing uses the _______ tree approach.

  • source-based
  • group-shared
  • destination-based
  • None of the choices are correct

63. The Multicast Open Shortest Path First (MOSPF) protocol is an extension of the OSPF protocol that uses multicast routing to create source-based trees. The protocol is based on _______ routing.

  • distance vector
  • link state
  • path vector
  • None of the choices are correct

64. In RPF, a router forwards only the copy that has traveled the _______ path from the source to the router.

  • shortest
  • longest
  • average
  • None of the choices are correct

65. RPF eliminates the ________ in the flooding process.

  • forwarding
  • backwarding
  • flooding
  • None of the choices are correct

66. RPB creates a shortest path _______ tree from the source to each destination.

  • unicast
  • multicast
  • broadcast
  • None of the choices are correct

67. RPB guarantees that each destination receives _________ of the packet.

  • only one copy
  • no copies
  • multiple copies
  • None of the choices are correct

68. In ________, the multicast packet must reach only those networks that have active members for that particular group.

  • RPF
  • RPB
  • RPM
  • None of the choices are correct

69. _______ adds pruning and grafting to _______ to create a multicast shortest path tree that supports dynamic membership changes.

  • RPM; RPB
  • RPB; RPM
  • RPF; RPM
  • None of the choices are correct

70. __________ is an implementation of multicast distance vector routing. It is a source-based routing protocol, based on RIP.

  • MOSPF
  • DVMRP
  • CBT
  • None of the choices are correct

71. DVMRP is a ________ routing protocol, based on RIP.

  • source-based
  • group-shared
  • destination-based
  • None of the choices are correct

72. Pruning and grafting are strategies used in _______.

  • RPF
  • RPB
  • RPM
  • None of the choices are correct

73. PIM-DM is used when the number of routers with attached members is ______ relative to the number of routers in the internet.

  • large
  • small
  • moderate
  • None of the choices are correct

74. PIM-SM is used when the number of routers with attached members is ______ relative to the number of routers in the internet.

  • large
  • small
  • moderate
  • None of the choices are correct

75. An IPv6 address is _________ bits long.

  • 32
  • 64
  • 128
  • 256

76. An IPv6 address consists of ________ bytes (octets);

  • 4
  • 8
  • 16
  • None of the choices are correct

77. In hexadecimal colon notation, a 128-bit address is divided into _______ sections, each _____ hexadecimal digits in length.

  • 8; 2
  • 8; 3
  • 8; 4
  • None of the choices are correct

78. An IPv6 address can have up to __________ hexadecimal digits.

  • 16
  • 32
  • 8
  • None of the choices are correct

79. In IPv6, the _______ field in the base header restricts the lifetime of a datagram.

  • version
  • priority
  • hop limit
  • None of the choices are correct

80. The _________ in IPv6 is designed to provide special handling for a particular flow of data.

  • flow label
  • next header
  • hop limit
  • None of the choices are correct

81. When two computers using IPv6 want to communicate but the packet must pass through an IPv4 region, which transition strategy should be used?

  • tunneling
  • header translation
  • either tunneling or header translation
  • None of the choices are correct

82. When the majority of the Internet has moved to the IPv6 but some still use IPv4, which transition strategy should be used?

  • tunneling
  • header translation
  • either tunneling or header translation
  • None of the choices are correct

83. The protocols __________________________ in version 4 are combined into one single protocol, ICMPv6.

  • ARP and IGMP
  • ICMP and IGMP
  • ICMP, ARP, and IGMP
  • None of the choices are correct
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