Q1. What factors affect data transmission?
Ans Several factors affect how data is transmitted. They include the following
(i) Transmission rate-Frequency and bandwidth
(ii) Line Configurations-Point to point versus multipoint.
(iii) Serial and Parallel transmission
(iv) Direction of transmission-Simplex, Half Duplex, and Full Duplex
(v) Transmission Mode-Asynchronous and synchronous.
(vi) Circuit switching and Packet switching
(vii) Multiplexing (viii)Protocols
Q2. What is a Network? What are the benefits of networks?
Ans A network or communications network, is a system of interconnected computers, telephones
or other communications devices that can communicate with one another and share
applications and data.
The benefit of networks are given below:
(i) Sharing of peripheral devices.
(ii) Sharing of programs and data
(iii) Better communications
(iv) Security of information
(v) Access to databases
Q3. Define the following terms:
(i) Node (ii) Hub (iii) Backbone(iv) Router (v) Bridge (vi) Gateway
Ans (i) Node:- A node is a piece of hardware on the system that can be addressed by a message
from another node, that is , a computer, printer , fax, modem or CD-ROM drive.
(ii) Hub:- Node are connected to a hub, also called a concentrator, whose purpose is to
simplify wiring of nodes to each other and to route signals between the nodes.
(iii) Backbone:-A backbone is a high –capacity link to which many nodes or hub can be
connected ,it is design to carry lots of traffic.
(iv) Router:-A router is a special computer that direct communicating messages when
several networks are connected together.
(v) Bridge:-A bridge is an interface used to connect the same type of networks.
(vi)Gateway:- A gateway is an interface permitting communication between dissimilar
networks-for instance ,between a LAN and a WAN or between two LANs based on different
network operating system or different layouts.
Q4. What are the major difference between LAN and WAN?
Ans The major differences between LAN and WAN
- LAN are small sized networks
- Range of LAN may vary from 10m to 1.5 km.
- LAN operate between 10Mbps and 2 Gbps
- They offer very low delay
- Complete ownership by a single organization
- Very low error rates
- WAN are geographically spread over wide area.
- There is no limitation on the distance it spans.
- Typical speed of WAN varies from 56Kbps to 155 Mbps.
- They offer very high delay
- Owned by multiple organizations
- Comparatively higher error rates
Q5. Give two major reasons to have network security.
Ans Two major reasons to have network security are given below:
(i) Secrecy:- Keeping information out of the reach of unauthorized users.
(ii) Authentication:- Determining the authorized users before sharing sensitive information
with or entering into a business contract.
Q6. What is the purpose of using a Web Browser? Name any one commonly used Web
Ans The Web Browser fetches the page requested, interprets the text and formatting commands
that it contains and display the page property formatted on the screen.
Q7. Write two advantages and disadvantages for STAR topology.
Ans Advantages of STAR topology:
(i) One device per connection.
(ii) Easy to access
Disadvantages of STAR topology:
(i) Central node dependency
(ii) Long cable length.
Q8. Write one difference between Telnet and FTP.
Ans Telnet-to connect to remote computers. Telnet is a program or command that allows the user
to connect to remote computers on the Internet using a user name and password.
FTP(File transfer protocol) is a method whereby the user can connect to a remote computer
known as FTP site and transfer files to his/her own microcomputer’s hard disk. Some FTP
files are open to the public, some are not
Q9. Explain the following terms in short:
(i) DHTML (ii) ISP
Ans DHTML is the next generation of HTML.It describes how text and images are displayed on
a web page. Dynamic HTML, developed by Netscape and the World Wide Web Consortium
(W3C) is based entirely on industry standard HTML and Java. New features in Dynamic
HTML, such as absolute positioning and layers , give designers and developers much greater
control over the look and feel of web pages.
ISP(Internet Service Provider) is a company that connects your communication line to is
servers, or central (host)computer, which connects you to the internet via another company’s
network access points. ISP’s have a wide range of prices and packages for users to choose
Q10. What are firewalls?
Ans Firewalls are defensive barriers that fence off a private network from the internet
Q11. What is the difference between Message Switching technique and Packet Switching
Ans Message Switching:-It is better known as store and forward. In this mechanism a node on
receiving a message, stores it till the appropriate route is not free, then forwards it on the
route when the route is free.
Packet Switching:-It is best for data. In a packet –switched network, data are transmitted in
discrete units called packets. A packet is a fixed length block of data for transmission. The
maximum length of the packet is established by the network. Longer transmissions are
broken up into multiple packets. The packets have headers with priority codes and source and
destination addresses along with data to be sent. The packets are sent over the network node
to node, kept there for a small time and then routed according to the information in its header
Q12. Write two applications of Cyber –Law
Ans Two applications of Cyber –Law are given below
(i) Restricting/Penalising unathorised user
(ii) Promoting , coordinating and controlling e-Business.
Q13. Write a not on Fast Ethernet Technology.
Ans The growing importance of LANs and the increasing complexity of desktop computing
applications are fueling the need for high performance networks. 100BASE-T(Fast Ethernet)
provides a cost effective and high-performance for small workgroups. SMBs(Small to
Medium Business), and any network supporting bandwidth-intensive applications. Fast
Ethernet technology operates at 10 times the speed of traditional Ethernet, offering maximum
performance and enhanced capability for existing Ethernet- based networks.
Q14. What is the diffrence between XML and HTML? Write two differences.
Ans The major differences between XML and HTML
Does’nt specify either semantics or tag set.
It is a language for documents containing
structured information and all semantics are
defined by the applications that process them.
The semantics and tag set are fixed.
It is a language used to design the layout of a
document and to specify the hyperlinks.
Q15. Expand the following terminologies:
(i) TCP/IP (ii) XML (iii) CDMA (iv) WLL
Ans (i) TCP/IP:-Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
(ii)XML:-eXtensible Markup Language
(iii)CDMA:-Code division Multiple access
(iv) WLL:-Wireless Local Loop.
Q16. What is a Modem?What is its function?
Ans A modem is a computer peripheral that connects a worstation to other workstation via
telephones lines and facilitates communications.It is short form for
Modem converts digital signals to A/F(Audio Frequncy) tones which are in the frequency
range that the telephone lines can transmit and aloso it can convert transmitted tones back to
Q17. Differentiate between Internet and Intranet.
Ans The internet is world wide network of computer networks around the globe.Internet uses a set
of protocols called TCP/IP .
On the other hand Intranet is a network ,whichi is privately owned. Intranet also uses a set of
protocols as internet.
Q18. Define the following :
(i) Data channel (ii) Baud (iii)bps (iv) Bps (v) Bandwidth
(i) A data channel is a medium used to carry information or data from one point to the
(ii) Baud is the unit of measurment for the information carrying capacity of a communication
channel.It is synonymous with bits per second.
(iii) bps:- bits per second.It refers to a thousand bits transmitted per second
(iv) Bps:- bytes per second.It refers to a thousand bytes transmitted per second
(v) Bandwidth:-It refers to the diffrence between the highest and lowest fequencies of a
transmission channel.This term is also sometimes used to refer to the amount of
information travelling through a single channel at any one point of time.
Q 19) Differentiate between tree and Bus topologies of a network.
A19) Tree topology is a network with the shape of an inverted tree with the central root branching
and sub-branching to the extremities of the network.
Bus topology:-In this topology , all devices on network are connected to a single continous
cable called a bus.This topolgy can be used for for smaller networks.
Q20. What do you mean by a backbone network?
Ans. A backbone network is a network that is used as a backbone to connect the connect several
LAN’S together to form a WAN.
FDDI (Fiber Distribute Data Interface) is such a network. FDDI is a high performance fiber
optic token ring LAN running at 100 Mbps over distances up to 200 kms with up to 1000
Q21. What are cookies?
Ans. Cookies are messages that a web server transmits to a web browser so that the web server can
keep track of the user’s activity on a specific web site.
Q22. What is XML? How is it different from HTML?
Ans. XML is a markup language for creating documents containing structured information.
In HTML both tag semantics and tag are fixed but XML specifies neither semantics nor
tagset.Rather it provides a facility to define tags and relationships among them.
Q23. What are switched LANs/Switched Ethernet LANS?
Ans. LANs that are segmented through switches are called switched LANs. In case of Ethernet
LANs they are called Switched Ethernet LANS.
Q24. What is a communication channel? What choices do u have while choosing a
communication channel for a network?
Ans. Communication channels mean the connecting cables that link various workstations. There are
three basic types of cables:
(i) Twisted Pair Cables:- These cables consist of two insulated copper wires twisted
around each other. These are also used for short and medium range telephone
(ii) Coaxial Cables:- A coaxial cable consist of one or more small cables in protective
covering. These are more expensive than twisted pair cable but perform better.
(iii) Fiber-optic Cables:– These cables are made of plastic and glass and are about as thick
as human hair. These cables are highly durable and offer excellent performance but are
Q25 What do you mean by topology? What are the most popular topologies?
Ans. Topology refers to the way which the workstations attached to the network are interconnected.
The most popular topologies are:
Bus, Ring ,Star,Tree
Q26. What is firewall? What are different firewall techniques?
Ans. The system designed to prevent unauthorized access to or form a private network is called
There are several types of firewall techniques:
Packet Filter, Application Gateway, Circuit-level Gateway, Proxy Server
Q27. What is the significance of anonymous user in FTP? What is uploading? Can an
anonymous user upload? If yes, how? If no, why?
Ans. In order to use FTP effectively, one needs to be an authorized user. However, anonymous FTP
is a method whereby FTP server allows the general public to access files on the FTP.
Uploading of files refers to the transfer of files from one’s computer onto FTP server. An
anonymous user generally is not allowed to do so and anonymous users have permission to
However, on many UNIX FTP servers, there is a / incoming directory. If this directory is there,
then an anonymous users have permissions to upload only in this directory and no where else.
Q28. What is Ethernet? What is Ethernet Card?
Ans. Ethernet is a LAN architecture developed by Xerox Corp in association with DEC and Intel.
Ethernet uses bus or star topologies and can support data transfer rates of up to 10 Mbps.
The computers that are the part of Ethernet have to install a special card called Ethernet Card.