In this section of Software Engineering – Software Testing.It contain Formal Modeling and Verification MCQs (Multiple Choice Questions Answers).All the MCQs (Multiple Choice Question Answers) requires in depth reading of Software Engineering Subject as the hardness level of MCQs have been kept to advance level.These Sets of Questions are very helpful in Preparing for various Competitive Exams and University level Exams.

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. Statistical use testing relies on probability distributions based on
  • mixture of control structures used in the program
  • order in which the module execute
  • the way software will actually be used
  • user interface design standards
. Certification of an increment is complete once it has passed the formal verification process.
  • True
  • False
. Which of the following models is part of the cleanroom certification process?
  • component model
  • sampling model
  • both a and b
  • none of the above
. A data invariant is a set of conditions that are true during the execution of any function.
  • True
  • False
. In some formal languages, stored data that the system accesses and alters is called a(n)
  • attribute
  • data structure
  • state
  • variant
. In formal methods work, an action that reads or writes data to a state is called a(n)
  • actor
  • event
  • invariant
  • operation
. What defines the circumstances in which a particular operation is valid?
  • data invariant
  • precondition
  • postcondition
  • state
. Using formal methods eliminates the need to write natural language commentary in the specification document.
  • True
  • False
. A common notational convention in many formal methods is to write the variable with a prime in the postcondition for an operator
  • True
  • False
. Which of these are components of a formal specification language?
  • Semantics that defines the objects used to describe system
  • Set of relations defining the object rules
  • Syntax that defining the notation
  • all of the above
. OCL makes use of several specialized mathematical characters
  • True
  • False
. The Z language makes use of schemas to describe system states in terms of the values assigned to system variables.
  • True
  • False
. The cleanroom strategy is based on the ________ software process model.
  • evolutionary
  • incremental
  • revolutionary
  • spiral
. The cleanroom strategy relies on
  • exhaustive testing
  • extensive unit testing of all modules
  • tests that exercise the software as it is really used
  • white box testing strategies
. Use of formal program correctness proofs as part of the cleanroom process eliminates the need do any testing for software defects
  • True
  • False
. In cleanroom software engineering a “box” encapsulates some system aspect at a particular level of detail.
  • True
  • False
. This box specification describes an abstraction, stimuli, and response
  • black box
  • clear box
  • state box
  • white box
. This box specification describes the architectural design for some system component
  • black box
  • clear box
  • state box
  • white box
. This box specification is closely aligned with procedural design and structured programming.
  • black box
  • clear box
  • state box
  • white box
. In cleanroom software engineering the structured programming approach is used to
  • refine data design
  • refine function design
  • refine usage test cases
  • both a and b
. By using only structured programming constructs as you create a procedural design, you make the work of proving design correctness much easier.
  • True
  • False
. Which of the following is not an advantage of using rigorous correctness verification of each refinement of the clear box design?
  • improves performance of code
  • produces better code than unit testing
  • reduces verification effort
  • results in near zero defect levels

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