• IPv4 is an unreliable connectionless protocol responsible for source-to-destination delivery.
  • Packets in the IPv4 layer are called datagrams. A datagram consists of a header (20 to 60 bytes) and data. The maximum length of a datagram is 65,535 bytes.
  • The MTU is the maximum number of bytes that a data link protocol can encapsulate. MTUs vary from protocol to protocol.
  • Fragmentation is the division of a datagram into smaller units to accommodate the MTU of a data link protocol.
  • The IPv4 datagram header consists of a fixed, 20-byte section and a variable options section with a maximum of 40 bytes.
  • The options section of the IPv4 header is used for network testing and debugging.
  • The six IPv4 options each have a specific function. They are as follows: filler between options for alignment purposes, padding, recording the route the datagram takes, selection of a mandatory route by the sender, selection of certain routers that must be visited, and recording of processing times at routers.
  • IPv6, the latest version of the Internet Protocol, has a 128-bit address space, a revised header format, new options, an allowance for extension, support for resource allocation, and increased security measures.
  • An IPv6 datagram is composed of a base header and a payload.
  • Extension headers add functionality to the IPv6 datagram.
  • Three strategies used to handle the transition from version 4 to version 6 are dual stack, tunneling, and header translation.

 

 
You may be interested in:
Data Communication and Networking MCQs by Behrouz A Forouzan.
Data Communication and Networking Randomly Picked MCQs
Fundamental of Networking online tests
Data Communication and Networking online tests
Data Communication and Networking Short Questions Answers
Data communication and networking MCQs PDF File for Download