• In the client/server paradigm, an application program on the local host, called the client, needs services from an application program on the remote host,’ called a server.
  • Each application program has a port number that distinguishes it from other programs running at the same time on the same machine.
  • The client program is assigned a random port number called an ephemeral port number; the server program is assigned a universal port number called a wellknown port number.
  • The ICANN has specified ranges for the different types of port numbers.
  • The combination of the IP address and the port number, called the socket address, defines a process and a host.
  • UDP is a connectionless, unreliable transport layer protocol with no embedded flow or error control mechanism except the checksum for error detection.
  • The UDP packet is called a user datagram. A user datagram is encapsulated in the data field of an IP datagram.
  • Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is one of the transport layer protocols in the TCP/IP protocol suite.
  • TCP provides process-to-process, full-duplex, and connection-oriented service.
  • The unit of data transfer between two devices using TCP software is called a segment; it has 20 to 60 bytes of header, followed by data from the application program.
  • A TCP connection normally consists of three phases: connection establishment, data transfer, and connection termination.
  • Connection establishment requires three-way handshaking; connection termination requires three- or four-way handshaking.
  • TCP uses flow control, implemented as a sliding window mechanism, to avoid overwhelming a receiver with data.
  • The TCP window size is determined by the receiver-advertised window size (rwnd) or the congestion window size (cwnd), whichever is smaller. The window can be opened or closed by the receiver, but should not be shrunk.
  • The bytes of data being transferred in each connection are numbered by TCP. The numbering starts with a randomly generated number.
  • TCP uses error control to provide a reliable service. Error control is handled by the checksum, acknowledgment, and time-out. Corrupted and lost segments are retransmitted, and duplicate segments are discarded. Data may arrive out of order and are temporarily stored by the receiving TCP, but TCP guarantees that no out-of-order segment is delivered to the process.
  • In modem implementations, a retransmission occurs if the retransmission timer expires or three duplicate ACK segments have arrived.
  • SCTP is a message-oriented, reliable protocol that combines the good features of UDP and TCP.
  • SCTP provides additional services not provided by UDP or Tep, such as multiplestream and multihoming services.
  • SCTP is a connection-oriented protocol. An SCTP connection is called an association.
  • SCTP uses the term packet to define a transportation unit.
  • In SCTP, control information and data information are carried in separate chunks.
  • An SCTP packet can contain control chunks and data chunks with control chunks coming before data chunks.
  • In SCTP, each data chunk is numbered using a transmission sequence number (TSN).
  • To distinguish between different streams, SCTP uses the sequence identifier (SI).
  • To distinguish between different data chunks belonging to the same stream, SCTP uses the stream sequence number (SSN).
  • Data chunks are identified by three identifiers: TSN, SI, and SSN. TSN is a cumulative number recognized by the whole association; SSN starts from 0 in each stream.
  • SCTP acknowledgment numbers are used only to acknowledge data chunks; control chunks are acknowledged, if needed, by another control chunk.
  • An SCTP association is normally established using four packets (four-way handshaking). An association is normally terminated using three packets (three-way handshaking).
  • An SCTP association uses a cookie to prevent blind flooding attacks and a verification tag to avoid insertion attacks.
  • SCTP provides flow control, error control, and congestion control.
  • The SCTP acknowledgment SACK reports the cumulative TSN, the TSN of the last data chunk received in order, and selective TSNs that have been received.


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